Modern Dslrs give photographers the option of shooting in Manual and Semi -Auto, and taking personal control - Shooting in Full Auto, and letting the camera make all of the decisions or using Scene Modes to tell the camera to set itself up for a particualr shooting situation Full Auto - Camera controls everything Semi Auto - Photographer controls at least 1 element and the camera controls the others Manual - Photographer controls everything Scene Modes - Pre-programmed settings for common situations and types of photography
Portrait - Shallow Depth of Field (large aperture) to blur background.. Optimizes skin color tones and saturation. Reduces edge sharpening for smoother skin texture. Low ISO favoured
Landscape - Scenic views. Green colours enhanced. Small aperture favoured to make the whole scene sharp and lens elemnents set to automatically favour deep focus into the image (and may not be able to shoot close-up) Single shot mode and single AF mode.
Close -up or Macro take close-up shots of small objects, flowers and insects. Lens can be moved closer to the subject than in other modes. Focus is critical & Depth of Field is enhanced to allow sharpness of close objects. Single shot mode and single AF mode. Low ISO for fine detail. May need tripod if shutter speed drops
Sports Mode taking photos of a fast moving subject; fast shutter speeds “freeze” the action. Multi shot mode & Servo or follow focus set. Best in bright light. ISO will adjust higher to keep the shutter fast
Extra modes - Bridge and Compact cameras have many more creative modes, all pre-configured to help get the shot without setting the camera up manually. Night time - night time portrait - fireworks - party - smile detection - food - Toy camera - there are dozens of them....
Program mode forms a bridge between Full Auto (& Scene modes), and the photographer-controlled "Creative zone".
As with Auto the camera takes care of all decisions relating to Aperture and Shutter but the photographer now has 2 important ways of overriding the defaults. It's a great mode for outdoor shooting but potentially dangerous indoors as shutter speeds drop.
Overriding Program Mode we can do this in 2 ways - by adjusting ISO and using exposure compensation
ISO In P mode we can set Auto ISO or take control and set a value that releates to what we're shooting